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List of all historical monuments in Almopia

Overview Current Situation Protection Status
Church of St. Nicholas in Ida Saint Nikolaos is located in the village of Ida. The church seems to be built in 1885, a date which we find in murals inside. It belongs to a three-aisled basilica and has two entrances on the west and south side. The roof is pitched, covered with slate by excision in western and eastern top. As in the case of St. Demetrios in Xifiani, the bell tower is later than the temple. The roof of the church is a wooden "ntampladoti" (ntampladoti is called the door, which is above the embossed designs), while in the central aisle is illustrated Pantokrator. The icon screen is wooden with painted decoration and the interior of the church is full of wall paintings, even within the arches of the topmast. Among the church's frescoes, we see the Last Supper, the prayer of Christ, the Betrayal, the sawing of the Prophet Isaiah and the houses of the Akathistos, the raising of Lazarus, the Virgin Mary, etc. In some frescoes stated that the date of creation, is in 1885.[1]. [1] Moutsopoulos N., The churches of the prefecture of Pella, Thessaloniki, Society for Macedonian Studies / Peninsula Institute for Balkan Studies, 1973, p. 23.
Saint Ioannis in Upper Loutraki According to tradition, the construction of the church is placed around 1800[1], although most evidence suggest a time in the mid-19th century. It is a three aisled basilica with gallery and a loggia, on the west and south sides. It has three entrances, two in the south and one on the west side, and the windows are small, iron-fences over the roof of the ambulatory. The pitched roof is covered with tiles.The zanana is located as usual in the western part of the church, with wooden parapet and trellis and the roof are wooden 'ntampladoti' (Ntampladoti is called the door, which is above the embossed designs) as in the case of St. Demetrius in Aetochori[2]. The columns of the temple, is of circular cross section, with square wooden core and lined “Baghdatis” (technical construction of wooden walls of old houses), as in many other churches. The temple is less impressive than the other churches in the area, with carved-wooden sanctuary doors of the Holy Door, and valuable written and naturalistic sculptural decoration. Remarkable is the portable icon of Archangel Michael dating in 1871[3]. On the lintel of the south entrance, there is a fresco of St. Ioannis the Baptist, to whom the church is dedicated.Although it has undergone later alterations, such as the demolition of the tower-like belfry (independent building west of the church), interior has been preserved the original image of the monument, the north and south wall and two topmasts of the colonnades, which is full of paintings of the last decades of the last century. Characteristic is the abundance of sound vessels, all along the side walls. [1] Moutsopoulos N., The churches of the prefecture of Pella,Thessaloniki, Society for Macedonian Studies / Peninsula Institute for Balkan Studies, 1973, p. 29.[2] Ibid. p. 30.[3] Ibid. The paintings are not in good condition, damaged by time and by people. According to testimonies of residents and organizations in the area, people  used to dig the walls of churches to find pounds. The zenana is in poor condition (floor, railings, stairs). Finally, the church is especially important for the local identity of the region and especially for those who come from the old village of Upper Loutraki. The monument because of its importance has been declared protected by the Ministry of Culture MD / ARC / B1 / F36 / 11358/374 / 16.03.1999 - GG 312 / B / 05.04.1999. Subordinate to the Archaeological Pella. For each setting or intervention in the area of the monument and around it we must have the permission of the above institution, in accordance with the provisions of Law. 3028/2002 (Government Gazette 153 / 06.28.2002).
Saints Anargyroi in Lagkadia The church of St. Anargyroi is located outside the village, in the area Seleste. According to an inscription, it was erected in 1863. It belongs to a three-aisled basilica, has two entrances on the southern side while at the same spot there is the loggia. The roof is pitched with slate and the spire is castellated, southeast of the old ambulatory. On the east side of the bell tower, it was found the inscription of the Roman era, and a few meters away from the church it was found a marble body of a man of the same age. Inside the church, both the ceiling and the temple is made of wood, while the zenana has particular anthropological interest, which serves as an ossuary. Among the frescoes of the church are distinguished: Paradise, the martyrdom of St. Chrysi, St Chrysi, Abbot Zosimas, the Blessed Mary the Egyptian, the death of fair and sinful person, the crisis of  Pilate, the hanging of Judas, the flagellation of Christ[1]. [1] Ibid. p. 28.
Ancient Village of Apsalos The ancient settlement of Apsalo, is located just outside the village on the south Almopia. The area was named Apsalo by the words “aptomai” (pertain) and “Als”, ie stands in the sea. The name came from the terrain, because previously the area was coastal[1].The geographer of the 2nd century AD Claudius Ptolemy (G 13,24) mentions as important centers of Almopia the cities Orma, Evropos and Apsalo. Habitation in Apsalo is timeless. The first traces date from the 6th millennium BC, while the archaeological findings confirm the (almost) uninterrupted continuity until today.In locations 'Komvos' and 'Line', the habitation dates back to the Neolithic period and detected until the post Roman years[2], while in the 'Tuba Apsalo' (west village) dating from the Classical period up to Early Byzantine[3]. The settlement that was revealed to 'Line', is located northeast of the village and dates back to the Middle Neolithic period (5800/5600 - 5400/5300 BC). It belongs to the type of flat - widespread settlements and the houses that have been excavated belong to the category of dug buildings. These are ashlar pits with dimensions to 5x4,20m with walls and a roof made of poles and branches. Apart from the above formula, there were pile dwellings, while in the settlement were excavated two large trenches in length over 13 m., a width of 8 m and a depth of 5,30 m. (constructions that are known in the literature, as fed). The findings were mainly pottery, stone and bone tools (blades, axes, pestles, millstones), a large number of stone and earthen pillars denoting the extensive involvement of residents in hunting, and there were found many loom weights, inductors, and spindle whorls, indicative of textile. Finally, there were found beads and bracelets.In the settlement 'Komvos', there was found another Neolithic residential facility (pits of underground houses and trenches fragmentary preserved), which dates back to the Early Neolithic period (6500 - 5900/5800 BC). Important discovery here was a pottery kiln from the Late Bronze Age (1600-1100 BC) and several waste pits. Apparently,these belong to the industrial area of a neighboring village to the south, which has not yet been excavated. The furnace is circular with a diameter of 1,15 m. and the pit of the heating chamber is located in a natural ground. The grid over the pit is preserved intact. It is a furnace with advanced technology, found in the Mediterranean region, but it is still rare in Macedonia[4]. Besides the above, there were found some road sections and tombs of Late Roman period.Finally, to the location 'Verpen'[5] (southeast of the Apsalo), was discovered an ancient settlement which is dated from the Late Hellenistic until the Early Christian period. There were also found tile graves and there was excavated a tomb of the Late Bronze Age or Early Iron Age. This tomb enclosure with a diameter of 15 m. The findings were limited, however, we distinguish an amphora and an iron knife. [1] Salamani, B., History of Almopia and analysis of notable areas, Ionian University, Department of History.[2] Chrysostomou, A., A. Georgiadou Ch. Poloukidou & A. Prokopidou, 'Excavations in the provincial road Apsalos - Aridea in 2000,' 'The archaeological work in Macedonia and Thrace 14, 2000, pp. 491-504, Chrysostomou A. & A. Georgiadou, '' Provincial road Apsalos - Aridea. The rescue excavation at the junction of Apsalo '' The archaeological work in Macedonia and Thrace 15, 2001, pp. 525-536, Chrysostom, A.., Ch. Poloukidou & A. Prokopidou, '' Provincial road Apsalo - Aridea. The excavation of the Neolithic settlement in place Line '' The archaeological work in Macedonia and Thrace 15, 2001, pp. 511-523.[3] Chrysostomou, A., AD 47, Part II Chronicles 2, 1992, pp. 459.[4] Because of its excellent preservation, the furnace is detached and transferred to the Museum of Pella [Chrysostomou, A. & A. Georgiadou, '' Provincial road Apsalo - Aridea. The rescue excavation at the junction of Apsalo '' The archaeological work in Macedonia and Thrace 15, 2001, p. 531].[5] Chrysostomou, A., '' Archaeological research in the area of Almopia in 1997, '' The archaeological work in Macedonia and Thrace 11, 1997, pp. 141-143.  In fact, the settlement is not open to visitors, as it is all covered with soil, for its protection and maintenance. However the place is accessible and the dirt road is passable.   The ancient settlements in Apsalo have been declared archaeological sites [MD YPPOT / GDAH (General Directorate of Antiquities and Heritage) / ARC / A1 / F 17/26707/1328 / 16-3-2012 - GG 104 / SSOs / 04.03.2012 (positions "Line" and "Komvos”), MD Ministry of Culture/ ARC / A1 / F43 / 61249/3494 ee / 31.03.1999 - GG 425 / B / 22.4.1999 (position "Verpen") and MD Ministry of Culture / ARC / A1 / F43 / 32 546 / 225 / 07.05.1996 - GG 572 / B / 16.7.1996, MD Ministry of Culture / ARC / A1 / F43 / 32546/225 / 07.05.1996 - GG 833 / B / 11.9.1996 (location "Toumba")]. These settlements belong to the Antiquities of Pella. For each setting or intervention in the area of the monument and around it, there must be the permission of the above institution, in accordance with the provisions of Law. 3028/2002 (Government Gazette 153 / 06.28.2002).
Saint Nikolaos in Archangelos The church of St. Nicholas is located in the center of Archangelos village. According to the inscription, the church was built in 1836, belongs to the three-aisled basilica and has a loggia on the west and south side. It has two entrances on the west and south side (as usual), while its windows are opened subsequently. The roof is pitched with slate and the spire is later from the church, as in the case of St. Demetrios in Xifiani and Saint Nikolaos in Ida. The roof of the church is “ntampladoti” and painted, like the temple. (Ntampladoti is called the door, which is above the embossed designs). It boasts the zenana, with quirky pleated parapet and trellis. The frescoes of the church are divided into three zones and among them we find the depiction of military saints such as Saint Christopher, the scene of the Deposition and the idol of Saint Mary the Egyptian, and the idol of Abbot Zosima. The church also has an old picture of the Archangels, which seems to date from the time when the church was painted in 1842. This date is indicated in the inscription on the northern wall of the temple adjoining the temple[1].  [1] Moutsopoulos N., The churches of the prefecture of Pella, Thessaloniki, Society for Macedonian Studies / Peninsula Institute for Balkan Studies, 1973, p. 25.
Natural History Museum The building of the old railway station in Aridea, known as "train of the Karatzova" was built during the First World War, when the allies of the Entente built in Macedonia narrow lines with width 1,60m. named Decauville (from the name of the French engineer inventor Paul Decauville / 1846-1922), to serve the needs of war. One of these was the line Skydras - Aridea in length 28km, which operated from 1916 until 1936[1]. The Decauville system was used extensively in the 1st World War and widespread use seen during the 50s, especially to meet the transport needs in shipyards, quarries and other industrial units. During the war, base stations which were connected via the Decauville, were Skydra, Aridea, Xifiani, Polykarpi, Apsalo and Orma. From there, the supplies were leaving with trucks to Promachon, Lykostomo, Down Loutraki and then transported by carriage up to the front[2]. The importance of the rail network, appeared in the great battle of Moglenitsa in September 1918 which led to the collapse of the German-Bulgarian front[3]. Due to flexibility and capacity of Decauville in unfavorable geomorphological conditions, the supply speed multiplied. So the planned (from the French General Franchet d'Esperey) surprise attack of the German-Bulgarian troops was feasible[4].Today the building of the station has been declared a historical monument, as it is one of the few remaining buildings stations (DECAUVILLE), and one of the few monuments that bear witness to the light of the Greek community in the recent liberation period.In 2002 the station was converted into a Museum of Natural History and hosts a variety of exhibits from archaeological remains to artworks, inspired by the natural heritage of Almopia. On the ground floor, there is the part of the environment where the visitor can be informed in detail about the rich flora of the mountains of Pella, the paleontology section in which there are exposed important finds from the caverns of Loutraki thermal baths (like bones from the bear cave-precipice, Ursus Speleaus and fossils of plant and animal organisms). Finally upstairs is housed the library of the museum and a folkloric place where exposed traditional costumes of Almopia. [1] Papadimitriou, D., '' The train in northern Greece. The development of the railway network by construction of the first line to date”, Seven Days (Daily), October 15, 1995, pp. 8-9.[2] Astranidis, G., A small train, a great story, Aridaia, 2013, p. 49.[3] Ibid. p. 30-31[4] Ibid. p. 46-47. The museum building is in excellent condition with no degradation data. During the field research, it is not open to the public but it can be visited. It has special interest, particularly in the field of pedagogic value for the local community and youth in the region. The building of the station, which hosts the Natural History Museum of Aridea has been declared a historical monument (MD Ministry of Culture / Directorate Of Popular Culture / C / 1711/31933 / 06.23.1992 - GG 461 / B / 15.7.1992). Subordinate to the Ephorate of Modern Monuments of Central Macedonia. For each setting or intervention in the area of the monument and around it we must have the permission of the above institution, in accordance with the provisions of Law 3028/2002 (GG 153 / 06.28.2002).
Folklore Meseum The Folklore Museum is accommodated today in a new stone house beside the river of the Thermal Baths and hosts a rich collection of folk art and collecting rocks. Among the exhibits of folkloric interest, we find old scales, irons, sewing machines, utensils and tools for household handicrafts while great interest has the collection of traditional costumes of the region. In the collection of rocks, we will find samples of rocks, which are detected in various regions of Almopia and other areas of Greece such as Cyclades:Hornblende (volcanic rock)Tuff (volcanic rock, Xifiani)Calcite (mineral, Polykarpi)Travertine (sedimentary rock, Orma)Gneiss (metamorphic rock, Promachon)Diabase (volcanic rock, Aloros)Pyroxenites (Edessa)Sperpentinitis (metamorphic rock, Apsalo)Limestone (sedimentary, Polykarpi)Marble (metamorphic rock, Promachon)Andesite (volcanic rock, Aloros)Chalcopyrite (Aloros)Chalcopyrite malachite (Garefi)Chromite (Polykarpi)Trachyte (volcanic rock, Aloros)Chlorite (New Life)Igknimvritis (North Almopia)Magnesite (New Life)Quartz (mineral, Almopia)Jasper (Aloros)Sanidino (Almopia)Volcanic bomb (Santorini)Obsidian (Milos)Basalt (Santorini) etcIn the past, the museum had a small archaeological collection that included stone prehistoric tools, objects from Iron Age, coins (Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman[1]) and paleontological finds from the caverns of the Thermal Baths. [1] This collection is distinguished here, http://www.pella-net.gr/default.asp?page=219 [renewal date 05/26/2015]. The community Loutraki was recognized holder of various objects from the Ministry of Culture with the no decision YPPO/ ARC / A2 / F25-F22 / 1730/59 / 28.01.1993. Chrysostomou, A., AD 47, B2 Chronicles, 1992, pp. 459-460. The museum is currently closed. -
Holy Monastery of Archangel Michael The Archangel Monastery is one of the most well-preserved historical monuments of Almopia. Its foundation dates back to the late 18th - early 19th century. Archangelos village, which is located a few minutes away from the monastery (the old name was Ossiani) got its name from this monastery. It is dedicated to the Archangel Michael and is currently home for five monks, while it is said that the first years it was dedicated to St. Ioannis the Baptist. It is also said that the monastery is built on an ancient temple dedicated to the goddess Artemis[1]. The archaeologist M. Papageorgiou[2] estimates that it was probably, a Roman years sanctuary of  Artemis Agrotera, although there are no surface older finds[3]. The monastery is located on the hill of the valley of northern Almopia, surrounded by a rich natural environment with cedar, chestnut and walnut trees, cherry trees, ponds and mini-waterfalls. The bridge that crosses the stream next to the monastery is really famousThe monastery, it is said that it was operated as a refuge and base for chieftains, during the Macedonian struggle, including Captain Matapas and Captain Michael Dragas[4]. The monastery houses the relics of eminent martyrs and saints of the church, and the famous icon of Archangel Michael[5]. The monastery of Archangel Michael is three aisled basilica with a raised skylight, narthex, loft and three-sided portico. The church is divided into three aisles by two colonnades, with colored columns connected by arched wooden structure of bagdati[6] (technical construction of wooden walls of old houses.). The roof of the church is the arched in the central nave and the side aisles are flat and wooden (the roof was replaced in 1996 because of disasters). Outside the church there are decorative reliefs: on the northwest corner of ambulatory is distinguished one ram-head, on the northeast side there are traces of damaged terrain, on the west side there is embossed cross and on the east side there is a bird (probably eagle[7]).Inside the church is full of paintings dating as a whole in 1888, based on inscriptions, while impressive is the wooden temple dating back to 1860. The temple has a rich painted decoration and images that unfold in four successive zones. The first set of images comprise twelve Despotic icons: St. Neomartyr the Chrysi Moglenitissa, Saint Kosmas of Aetolia, Archangel Michael, St. Hilarion, the miracle of Archangel Michael, the Virgin Mary, Christ, St. Demetrios, Archangel Michael designed by painters of Mount Athos, St George the Younger the Cappadocian and Saint George the Neomartyras of Ioannina. The next two and middle rows of the iconostasis, host 46 images of smaller size and the last zone has nine[8].The frescoes of the church are equally impressive although physical damage due to the humidity is evident. The icons of the catholic, are considered works of hagiographers Krousoviton Evangelos, Nicholas and Anastasius. The frescoes of south wall, are of a particular interest, because of their uniqueness (not found in other churches). The two most impressive of them are inspired by the Old Testament: the first concerns the destruction of Jerusalem and the massacre of the Jews. In the picture depicted Abed Meleha sleeping under a tree, while above him there is a basket full of figs (show faithful to the stage of the Old Testament). It is worth noting that the same scene, there is in the Church of Saint Paraskevi in Periclean[9]. In the second image is represented the martyrdom of the Prophet Isaiah, under the reign of King Zedekiah. The Prophet is shown inverted with head down, to be sawed by two executioners. As noted, the image seen in many temples of the middle of last century[10]. On the other, the north wall of the catholic church, shows scenes from the life of Christ, his passions and many saints, especially in third lower zone, from the four split up the north wall. Another two grim depictions found on the west wall of the catholic church: the first is depicted the '' sinful man ', who is tormented by devils in a goat-form, while to the left is a picture of St. Ignatius, between two lions ready to devour him. On the left, next to the entrance of the church, stands the martyrdom of St. Chrysi, a fresco of particular importance as it connects the popular ecclesiastical iconography with the corresponding urban iconography, in the late 19th century[11]. Finally, inside the church impresses the huge table with the Assumption and the Akathist Hymn.A notable element that we must mention, is the role of the number 12, which is repeated constantly in many parts of the church: 12 images in the first row of icons on the iconostasis, 12 columns in the two colonnades that divide the church into three Clytie, 12 columns in the ambulatory, 12 windows, 12 half-columns on the outside of the altar, 12 Saints on the north wall, 12 Saints on the south wall, 12 and 12 performances of twenty-four houses of the Akathistos Hymn[12]. The number 12 is assumed, that symbolizes the importance of the work and contribution of the twelve Apostles. [1] Martakis, A. M., Monastery of Archangel Michael in Almopia  oPella prefecture, Monastery of Archangel Michael in Almopia, 2006, p. 13.[2] M. Papageorgiou, Macedonian 9, 1969, p. 48-62 and 58.[3] Chrysostomou, A., Historical Topography in Almopia Society for Macedonian Studies, 1997, p. 478.[4] Ibid. p. 12.[5] Ibid. p. 7.[6] Ibid. p. 19.[7] Ibid. p. 16-17 and Moutsopoulos N., The churches of the prefecture of Pella, Thessaloniki, Society for Macedonian Studies / Peninsula Institute for Balkan Studies, 1973, p. 25.[8] Martakis. p. 30.[9] Ibid. p. 62.[10] Ibid. σ. 62.[11] Moutsopoulos N., The churches of the prefecture of Pella, Thessaloniki, Society for Macedonian Studies / Peninsula Institute for Balkan Studies, 1973, p. 26.[12] Martakis, p. 29. Access is possible  by paved road. The space outside the monastery is very nice, landscaped with trees, lawns, parking places and nice views to the valley of the upper Almopia. The monastery maintenance level is quite high, both for the building itself and the interior of the church, the frescoes, murals and columns which have kept their colors.The monastery is open daily 17: 00-14: 00 and 16: 00-20: 00 and hosts people only if personally know the monks. The festivals of the monastery take place on September 6 and November 8 (Feast of Archangel Michael). At the first festival, we can have meal and it has many visitors including local actors. According to locals and monks, the Archangel monastery seems to occupy great symbolic value for local identity and highly respected by the local people. In combination with the traditional village of Archangel and natural-historical monuments of north-eastern Almopia, the visit to the region is one of the most special excursion experiences.The most appropriate place for accommodation and food in the area is the village of Archangel, where you will find rooms to let, taverns and cafes. It is a very beautiful Vlach village with cobbled streets and very nice natural surroundings. The village has around 700 inhabitants, has school and a community clinic and it is known for its cherries and potatoes.  Because of its importance, the monument was declared a historical monument by the protection zone that extends around the temple and being bounded by the public road, the stream, the waterfall and the outbuildings of the monastery (MD Ministry of Culture / ARC / B1 / F36 / 15591/339 / 02.06.1995 - GG 579 / B / 30.6.1995). Subordinate to the Archaeological Pella. For each setting or intervention in the area of the monument and around it we must have the permission of the above institution, in accordance with the provisions of Law. 3028/2002 (GG 153 / 06.28.2002).
Holy Monastery of Saint Hilarion The oldest known bishop of Moglenon was Saint Hilarion[1], who founded a monastery dedicated to the Holy Apostles, to tackle sects in the 12th century. (probably near the Promachon). The monastery, however, was destroyed during the Turkish occupation as we learn from the locals. As noted, Saint Hilarion was the biggest opponent of the sect of Bogomils[2]. It is said that there lived many monks, under the indoctrination and teaching of Saint[3]. With the destruction of the monastery by the Turks, the name of St. Hilarion was forgotten and revived after the liberation of Macedonia[4].The homonymous monastery today to Promachon, is in modern construction. It was recently restored, and the church was inaugurated in 2012. Today it is a nunnery, and hosts three nuns.It is important to mention that during the construction of the church identified findings which suggest that in the same position there was a Paleochristian building which was probably built on a previous pagan temple, (probably the temple of Artemis Agrotera[5]). [1] Eugenidou, D., “Excavations in Byzantine, Central and West Macedonia, Servia and Moglena”, The archaeological work in Macedonia and Thrace 1, 1987, pp. 63-68.[2] Martakis, A. M., Monastery of Archangel Michael in Almopia of the prefecture of Pella, Monastery of Archangel Michael Almopia, 2006, p. 18. The Bogomils were named by the Bulgarian Bogomils priest who lived in the mid-10th century in Bulgaria. The Vogomilismos was deeply influenced by the heretical stream of Paflikianismos and as it had won some support among rural populations. The Bogomils hostile the ecclesiastical hierarchy, as the work which was dedicated to Christ and inviting the poor to resist against the government and the rich. They were a real "headache" for the government of the time and came into armed conflict with the government although theoretically reject violence. See. Charalampakis, P., '' Paflikianismos and Vogomilismos: religious sects and popular movements '', E-Historically, December 2011, p. 49-84.[3] Bishop of Edessa, Pella and Almopia Joel, Saint Hilarion, Saint Hilarion Monastery Promachon, 2015.[4] Ibid.[5] Chrysostomou, A., AD 45, 1990, p. 372 · idem, AD 56-59, B2 Chronicles, 2001-2004, p. 477.  Both the old monastery and the courtyard of it, are in very good condition. In the buildings and in the open space of the monastery, dominate the stone and wood. The monastery opens its doors every day 09: 00-13: 00 and 16: 00-18: 00 in winter, and 09: 00-13: 00 and 17: 00-20: 00 in summer. According to the nuns, the monastery has many visitors and receives much support from the locals. Its relationship with the society of Promachon looks good and the eve of the festival of St. Hilarion, on October 21, the monastery was filled with people who carry baskets and offertories, in honor of the miracle of the five offertories (particularly on the eve of the festival). The monastery is also celebrating the Apostles Peter and Paul, on 29 June. The old monastery is subordinate to the Archaeological Pella. For each setting or intervention in the area of the monument and around it, we must have the permission of the above institution, in accordance with the provisions of Law 3028/2002 (GG 153 / 06.28.2002).
Old Mill Sosandra The watermills in Sosandra belong to a particular type, which is uncommon. There is a four-mill and a six-mill, which date to the late 19th century and early 20th century. The presence of four and six respectively couples querns, shows the rich production of flour and the robust economy that was based on it. Although these are two important monuments (reference point) of past cottage industry of the area, unfortunately today are deserted and covered by wild vegetation. Both monuments have been declared historical monuments, as provide evidence for the evolution of the local folk architecture and sample artisanal and industrial architecture that preserved in the region. The Old Mill of Sosandra, is located ten minutes from Aridea. Road access is easy, but there is no signage. The trees and lush vegetation make it difficult to detect. Although it has still water, the monument is completely degraded, its largest part has been collapsed and as seen from the fieldwork few people know its location and existence. Both monuments have been declared historical monuments, MD Ministry of Culture / Directorate of Popular Culture / C / 293/29 / 22.1.1988 - GG 90 / B / 19.2.1988. Subordinate to the Ephorate of Modern Monuments of Central Macedonia. For each setting or intervention in the area of the monument and around it we must have the permission of the above institution, in accordance with the provisions of Law. 3028/2002 (GG 153 / 06.28.2002).
Cavern-chasm The cavern-chasm is one of the most important caverns of the cavern-park of the thermal baths. Its length is 50 meters and it is drilled in limestone background. In the interior of it, have been found pottery finds, dating to the Late Neolithic Period, while the deepest point of the chasm was found a human skeleton of a man with an unknown 'absolute age' (historical period). Conversely, research has shown that the biological age of the skeleton could be between 40 and 50 years[1]. Because of the skeleton, the cavern is of great anthropological interest. The interesting element of the cavern is the chasm, which actually is illuminated from high above by a hole in the rock.The cavern-formations of the area, appeared thousands of years ago when the water level reached the level of the entrances of caverns before they formed the plain of Aridea[2].The cavern-shelters dating from shells (ceramics fragments) at the end of the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age, and they were used either as permanent homes or as seasonal spaces[3].The cluster of caverns discovered in the 90s. It consists of fifteen caverns along the stream of St. Nicholas[4] with great scientific interest.The caverns are:Gulf (Cavern-gulch)Cavern ASaint George): One of the largest caverns in the area. The great hall, was observing a cult of unknown age.Cavern B: The largest cavern of the cluster, with Neolithic findings, and with use evidence from humans.Cavern C: Small cavern near the chasm, in which in the entrance there is a rock inscription.Cavern-shelter D: One of the largest of its kind. It has two entrances.Cavern-shelter E: In the blackened walls, there are the most important paintings of the area.Cavern-shelter Z: It is large. In it, there were found fossils of the brown bear and ceramics.Cavern-shelter Za: It is very impressive and large. There are rock paintings and inscriptions.Cavern H: On the outside rock, there are carvings (formerly found Roman coins)Cavern TH: It is a huge vertical crack in the rock. The cavern is located at a height of 25m in the slot.Cavern I: It has an ornate small corridor, from pure white stalactites and material of stalagmites.Cave-chasm K: It is located in perpendicular rocks, 15m above the cavern A.Cave-form L: It is a conduit with a slit form, penetrating the rock length 7m below the cavern A.Cave-form M: It is a large opening, with the form of entry to a cavern.Cavernous Openings: The area (where there is erosion and weathering of rocks by water) are cavernous openings, ducts, tunnels, karst cracks and possibly more cavities[5].These are cavities of various dimensions and shapes presenting paleoecology-paleontology interest because of the abundance of skeletal elements belonging mainly to the prehistoric caves Arktos (Ursus spelaeus) of the species Ursus Ingressus. The caves date back to the Pleistocene and specifically in the last glacial period Würm (80.000 - 10.000 years ago). Today, the species are now extinct. The caves have also bir archaeological interest. Based on the ceramic finds and stone tools which are found within them, it turns out that these were used by people occasionally as shelters during the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. These are the so called “rock-shelters”.The most important is the cavern of A, which is also called 'bear-cave'. The present entrance is later, as its small size would prevent the sizeable bears to enter inside. It seems that Neolithic man is associated with the opening of the bear cave, and a portion of it, is formed artificially. Remarkable, mainly to archaeological discoveries, is the Cavern B, also known as the “Guerrilla Store”. Superficially and throughout its length, is locateda combustion layer and pottery of Late Neolithic period. Other caverns are the 'Aura', the 'Ceramics' and the cave 'Plotsa'. The name of the cave 'Aura', is due to the abandoned hotel 'Aura', which dates to the 19thcentury[6]. In these three caverns, have been identified archaeological embankments. As we learn,sometime some of the embankments removed, and thus destroyed a number of important elements[7]. [1] Pitsios, Th., '' The human skeleton in the cave-precipice of the Baths of Loutraki Aridea ', 5th International Congress, Athens-Crete, 7-11 / 11/1994,' Growth, development and environment caves' and Ministry of Culture, http://odysseus.culture.gr.[2] Karassavidis, P., Creating the Digital terrain of Loutra Pozar Pref. Pellas, in Environment ArcGIS, Master Thesis, Department of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Department of Cadastre, Photogrammetry and Cartography, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki 2010, p. 24.[3] Chrysostomou, A., Ancient Almopia: from the prehistoric to the early Byzantine years, Thessaloniki, Pan-Macedonian Association-Annex Almopia, 1994, p. 34. [4] Kambouroglou, Ev., I. Bassiakos & D. Bouzas, '' Paleontological - Sedimentological 2004 excavation research and chronological studies of the cavern A in Loutraki Pozar '' AEMTH 18, 2004, pp. 573-589; Pappa, S., Study of lactic teeth of bears from the Pleistocene from cavern-park of Almopia and from caverns in Europe. Systematic-viostromatografia, 2010, graduate theses, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (http://digital.lib.Auth.gr/record/125389). See website http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/2/gh251.jsp?obj_id=19264.[5]Karassavidis, P., Creating the Digital terrain of Loutra Pozar Pref. Pellas, in Environment ArcGIS, Master Thesis, Department of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Department of Cadastre, Photogrammetry and Cartography, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2010, p. 25-26. [6]Source : http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/2/gh251.jsp?obj_id=19264[7]Vaxevanopoulos, M., Pennos, Ch., Gkarlaouni, Ch., Pechlivanidou, S., Zahariades, S., ''Prospects for improvement of tourist arranged caverns in Greece '', Proceedings of the 4th Pancretan Speleological Congress October 25-26, 2008 , p. 4. [https://www.academia.edu/3501641, renewal date 03/10/2015] Although the cavern was developed for tourism in the past, the monument can not be visited at present and the situation is particularly degraded (remarkable is that under Lhi-Lna II will be financed studies to highlight it). The monument is of a great educational value because of its history and together with other caverns of the thermal baths is perhaps the most important monument of paleontological and anthropological interest in Almopia. Because of the thermal baths, the visitor of the cave can find everything: accommodation, dining, walking routes etc. The symbolic section for the local community is huge and it is one of the most popular monuments in Almopia. It is subordinated to Ephorate of Paleoanthropology - Speleology of Northern Greece. For each setting or intervention in the area of the monument and around there must be permission of the above institution, in accordance with the provisions of Law. 3028/2002 (Government Gazette 153 / 06.28.2002).
Antiquities in the village Watermills The settlements, Watermills and Prodromos separated by a tributary of the river Almopaios or Upper Loudias river, that until recently was the workhorse for many watermills in both villages. The ancient site on the hill 'Goritsa' located between the two settlements[1]. Many important finds from the area (coins, pottery, figurines, etc.) and traditions such as the tombstone of Kassandra and a votive relating to the dedication of an altar[2].The settlement of the watermill has fortifications while some findings in the area show that there roofs, warehouses, workshops and places of worship[3].Among the most interesting findings is a head female figurine, a bronze buckle, a relief vessel, an intact oil lamp of the 3rd century eg, an earthen weights with signature, a clay snake cult figurine, some inscribed roof-tiles sections and portion for producing embossed Hellenistic vases[4].During excavations were uncovered houses rooms with clay-built or pebbled floors dating to the 3rdcentury AD. The habitation, however, goes back to earlier periods. Already during the Hellenistic period (late 4th-1st century B) there was a remarkable settlement and there have been revealed evidence, dating to late Classical period (4th century BC). It seems therefore that it is an important city in the region in late antiquity.This is something that is found from the first scholar who understood the importance of area N. Papadakis in the article "On the Upper Macedonia", in which ethe researcher xpressly states that there are traces, and pottery pieces dating back to the 5th century BC.However, it is observed that during the First World War, the French army chose this location for a fortress. The army, used materials from the traces previously described by scholar Papadakis.Consequently, there was not rescued a very large part of these relics. Furthermore, most recently in 1994 there was a new outbreak of illicit trade of antiquities[5].Another interesting finding is the extensive tumuli cemetery of the Iron Age that has revealed the the corresponding hill 'Goritsa' (west of Prodromos). The gravel mounds have a diameter ranging from 13 to 16.50 m and a height of 1.30 to 1.50 m. Unfortunately they were looted. In the Tomb III was detected an oval tomb, built with 11 pillars and a road to the east with length 1.80 m and width 1.00 m. The two uprights excelled east of the tomb so that could work as a grave marker. The finds, mainly pottery, jewelry and iron weapons, place the use of the cemetery in the 9th century BC. [1] Chrysostomou, A.. & E. Stefani, “Salvage excavations in the Watermill - Prodromos community of Almopia in 1994”, The archaeological work in Macedonia and Thrace 8, 1994, pp. 91-99.Thessaloniki, Pan-Macedonian Association-Annex Almopia, 1994, p. 54.[4]Ibid[5]Chrysostomou, A. & E. Stefani, '' Salvage excavations in the community Watermill - Baptist of Almopia in 1994, '' AEMTH 8, 1994, pp. 91-99.  To get to the ancient settlement, we pass the Ida and follow the relevant signs. The access to the hill is easy by dirt road and the signage is adequate with  signs outside the village and into the watermills. The monument is not open to visitors. Interesting elements which could be used to upgrade the traffic level are the rural areas around the hill Goritsa, olive groves, and the view from the hill.From the top of the hill Goritsa, we see the peaks of the Northern villages Pinovo and Jena and villages Prodromos and Thiriopetra. On the east we see the mountain Paiko and on the west section we see the plain of Almopia and to the depth there is the Kaimaktsalan. The hill is surrounded by olive groves, pomegranates and peaches, while to the road to the village we meet wild roses used as a decoction with very good qualities.On the hill, the settlement is not obvious. It has lush vegetation which makes it difficult to move up the hill and there is no path. The site suffered significant destruction during World War II, and recently by granting land west of the hill to political refugees. Today, from the city walls have survived little things and generally the place is characterized by complete degradation. MD Ministry of Culture / ARC / A1 / F43 / 19178/931 / 06.22.1996 - GG 608 / B / 22.7.1996 and MD Ministry of Culture / ARC / A1 / F43 / 19178/931 / 05.22.1996 - GG 834 / B / 11.9.1996. Subordinate to the Archaeological Pella. For each setting or intervention in the area of the monument and around it, we must have the permission of the above institution, in accordance with the provisions of Law. 3028/2002 (GG 153 / 06.28.2002).
Cemetery tumuli in Constantia The settlement Constantia is about ten kilometers from Aridea. The ancient history evidenced by the tumuli cemetery that is located at the foot of Mount Paiko, in a green landscape between farms and animal housing areas.The tumuli cemetery in Constantia, dates back on the findings from the Iron Age, its use however reaches the Archaic and Classical period[1]. East on the hillside, are the remains of the modern settlement founded on the shortest ancient road, connecting Almopia with Votiaia[2]. It is the oldest settlement in the area (although not the last), and here have found remains of settlements from the Hellenistic up to early Christian times. Also at the top Mytakas over the cemetery there is a stone fortress, but uncertain dating.The cemetery tombs amount to 40. They have a diameter ranging from 8 to 14m. and they are made with large stones and gravel, held with larger stones in their region. In each tumulus there was a tomb. This stone-built one-room cabin with entry barrier in the east and a short path length up to 2,85m. The tomb with tumulus is used for successive family burials and its use could exceed the time centuries. From funeral gifts of burials we distinguish the bronze, eight-shaped and arched shoulder buckles and head, cotters, bracelets, the stone - glass and bronze small stones, iron knives and whetstone, spindle whorls and pottery, such as the characteristics kantharos or cantharus vessels. [1]Chrysostomou, A., “The cemetery of tombs of the Iron Age in Constantia Almopia of Pella Prefecture”, The archaeological work in Macedonia and Thrace 9, 1995, pp. 155-163 · idem, “Constantia 1998-2000: the cemetery of the tumuli and the surrounding area”, The archaeological work in Macedonia and Thrace 14, 2000, pp. 503-518 (see the website http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/3/gh352.jsp?obj_id=6364)[2] The area of Bottiaia, was extended in the area around the lake of Giannitsa, ie the plain between Loudias, Aliakmonas and Axios. See. Talbert, RJA, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, 2000, Map 50, B3. The level of maintenance and protection of tumuli is very low. In some tombs, we can distinguish the stones that reveal the exact spot of the tomb but in others it is almost impossible because of the dense vegetation. The road network is good, (even in the places we meet a dirt road) and the signage is adequate, from the point of the cemetery and the road from Constantia and Exaplatanos. From the on-the-spot discussions with the shepherds in the area, we realized that the monument does not have a prominent role in the life of the local community, but this should be investigated further. Subordinate to the Archaeological Pella. For each setting or intervention in the area of the monument and around it we must have the permission of the above institution, in accordance with the provisions of Law. 3028/2002 (GG 153 / 06.28.2002).
Antiquities in Periclean The Periclean is a small village at an altitude of 580 meters between the mountains Jena and Paiko, just 7.5 km from the border with FYROM. In Periclean and specifically the hill of St. Athanasius, has been revealed important settlement and a cemetery of the Hellenistic period[1]. [1]Chrysostomou, A., AD 52, B2 Chronicles, 1997, pp. 727-728 · idem, AD 56-59, B2 Chronicles, 2001-2004, p. 391.  The monument is difficult to trace.From the fieldwork,there are not many distinct traces of the settlement or cemetery. It is not open to visitors and additionally few people (from the area) knows where it is located. The road network is in good condition and there is no signage anywhere. MD Ministry of Culture / ARC / A1 / F43 / 46553/2884 / 11.19.1997 - GG 1080 / B / 12.5.1997. Subordinate to the Archaeological Pella. For each setting or intervention in the area of the monument and around it we must have the permission of the above institution, in accordance with the provisions of Law. 3028/2002 (GG 153 / 06.28.2002).
Bridge in Aloro On the south of the ancient settlement of Aloros, is the arched stone bridge that connected the province of Almopia to that of Giannitsa. It has the name "Bridge of Alexander the Great ', although chronologically is much later[1]. It is a multi-arc bridge with three semicircular arches. According to one version, it had five arches and a total length of over 50 meters[2]. Dating back probably to the post-Byzantine era, despite the name that is known[3].Unfortunately the bridge has undergone major disasters, because it was blown up during the civil war. It is built with lomestones while the slate has been little used.Today there is only one bow, the westernmost. Its dimensions are: length - 12 m., width - 2 m., height – 4,70 m., and arc opening – 5,70 m. Its maximum height is estimated that it must have been over 8 m. The pedestals of the arches are hexagonal and have repairs of various chronological phases, which probably determine the reconstruction of the 18th century[4]. [1]Chrysostomou, A., “Archaeological research in the area of Almopia in 1997”, The archaeological work in Macedonia and Thrace 11, 1997, p. 146[2]G.P Tsotsos (1997) Macedonian bridges. Topography, architecture, history, folklore, Thessaloniki, p. 117.[3]Chrysostomou A. (1997), "Archaeological research in the area of Almopia in 1997," The archaeological work in Macedonia and Thrace 11, p. 146.[4]Tsotsos (1997) Macedonian bridges. Topography, architecture, history, folklore, Thessaloniki, p. 118. In terms of maintenance and protection, the degree of degradation is very high. Unfortunately the monument decays and requires immediate intervention. Today, it survives only one of the three arcs, while the support blocks is replaced with a cement construction. The road network is in good condition but still requires a vehicle with all-wheel drive.  It is has not been declared as a monument.
Ancient settlement of Aloros According to the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax from Karyanda (verse 66) : Aloros is included in the important citiesof the state of the Macedonians. The first city of Macedonia is Heraklion (Platamonas) followed by Dion, Pydna, city ellinios, Methoni, the river Aliakmon, the Aloros, the river Loudias, the city of Pella where is the seat of the kingdom and where one arrives while crossing the Loudias[1]. The Aloros therefore is one of the important settlements of Almopia near and northwest of Pella, the capitalof the Macedonian state. It grows on a fortified hill, surrounded by the Upper Loudias or Almopaio River offering the possibility of undertaking surveillance of the entire valley and control communication with the southern and eastern regions through the river[2]. The leading Greek archaeologist N. Papadakis (who revealed the settlement), argues that the settlement of Aloros is identified with Evropos, one of the three cities of Almopia[3], and few kilometers away from the village, on the eastern bank of the Upper Loudias there is the ancient city Meniida[4].Although the ruins of the village had already been identified since 1913[5], their research excavation began only in 1996 and rather fragmentary, and today they have undergone significant damage, mainly in the fortification of the settlement. According to the data of excavation, the settlement was inhabited from the Late Bronze Age until the post Roman years and there has been identified a cemetery tombs of the Iron Age. Warehouse with carvings for supporting jars, workshop and a large number of clay objects discovered in the southwestern hill inside the walls, which belong to the advanced Hellenistic period. The fortification wall dates to the Early Christian period, but based on fortifications from earlier periods. It is made with stones, roof tiles fragments and jars of the buildings of earlier periods and with binder plaster. The west wall has a length of 155 m and the width  ( in the last period of post Roman years) is 2.10 m in the south and 1.40 m in the north[6]. In the western boundary, the fortification exceed 5m in height[7].The portal has form of a double niche, with an elongated P with dimensions 7,00 x 7,80 m. On the gate and the northern part of the wall, there are walls of post Roman times and of the Hellenistic period[8]. In the southwestern corner of the gate, under the 'lime-buildings' parts, were revealed parts made with blocks of limestone pellaio, travertine from Edessa, and from local volcanic rock[9]. From the settlement remains (intramural) recognized some parts dating back to the Iron Age[10].Although the exact date of the phases of the walls of the settlement of Aloros is difficult (such as the work of dating when it is not accompanied by corresponding sources), we can assume that the lime wall was constructed to meet immediate risks such as barbarian invasions (due that is a very quick construction[11]). [1] Tzifopoulos, G.Z, '' Historical chart of Methoni '' in Tzifopoulos G.Z., Methoni Pierria I: Signs, scratches and trademarks in Geometric and Archaic pottery from the 'Underground' of Methoni Pieria in Macedonia, Thessaloniki, 2012, p. 16.[2]Chrysostomou, A., “Archaeological research in the area of Almopia in 1997”, The archaeological work in Macedonia and Thrace 11, 1997, pp. 145-152 · idem, “The recent research on the western wall of the ancient settlement, southeast of Aloros Almopia”,The archaeological work in Macedonia and Thrace 15, 2001, 537-548[3] Chrysostomou, A., '' The recent research on the western wall of the ancient settlement, southeast of Aloros of Almopia '' AEMTH 15, 2001, p. 537-538.[4] Chrysostomou P., AEMTH 14, 2000, p. 455-471.[5]Papadakis, N., On Upper Macedonia, Athens, 1913, pp. 454[6] Chrysostomou, A., '' The recent research on the western wall of the ancient settlement, southeast of Aloros of Almopia '' AEMTH 15, 2001, p. 537-548.[7] Chrysostomou, A., Ancient Almopia: from the prehistoric to the early Byzantine years, Thessaloniki, Pan-Macedonian Association-Annex Almopia, 1994 p. 50.[8] Chrysostomou, A., '' The recent research on the western wall of the ancient settlement, southeast of Aloros of Almopia '' AEMTH 15, 2001, p. 537-548.[9] Ibid. p. 544.[10]Ibid. p. 537-548.[11]Ibid. The ruins of the ancient settlement located on a hill above the village Aloros. Access is easy with the right vehicle, but needs attention as the winter months the soil is eroded and generates large pits. The signage is sufficient, labels exist in Aloro, in Xifiani and to the road to the settlement. On the positive side, we must add the special view of the valley. The ancient settlement of Alorou has been declared as an archaeological site since 1998 (MD Ministry of Culture / ARC / A1 / F43 / 58165/3458 ee / 19.06.1998 - GG 690 / B / 08.07.1998 and MD Ministry of Culture / ARC / A1 / F43 / 58165/3458 ee / 19.06.1998 - GG 1068 / B / 10.12.1998). Subordinate to the Archaeological Pella. For each setting or intervention in the area of the monument and around it, there must be permission of the particular organization, according to the provisions of Law. 3028/2002 (Government Gazette 153 / 06.28.2002).
Saint Dimitrios in Xifiani The church of St. Demetrios on the hill of Xifiani is established (as an inscription informs us), in 1857-1858 in the architectural style of the three-aisled basilica with loggia, vestibule and external open arcade on the south side. One of the most striking parts of the church is the pitched roof, covered with slate, which was recently renovated with the mobilization of local people. Inside the church, stands the wooden iconostasis with carved motifs of flowers, branches and leaves, the polygonal pulpit with carved wooden borders, and the zenana with special wooden parapet and trellis, which (as is common in churches of Pella) is located in the western part of the church[1]. The frescoes of the church depict Christ, Platitera (sanctuary apse) and a number of saints, while the portable icons depict Saint Kyriaki (generation year 1870) and Saint Nikolaos (year of creation 1860)[2]. The middle aisle of the church is covered by semi-cylindrical roof, while the side aisles are covered by flat and wooden. Finally, the bell tower is a separate building in the outer space of the temple (southeast) and is dated to 1919, as indicated on the inscription.More broadly, the area of Xifiani has provided important information to research on the habitation here in early Christian years[3]. Remarkable was the revelation of a cemetery section, in a short distance west of the Byzantine castle of Chrysi. The 45 tombs that were investigated belonged to various architectural types, but mostly on tile “Kalyvites” and cist, formulas used since Roman times, especially for economically disadvantaged people. A single tomb praised for its monumental structure. It is an underground part with a built box-like construction, coated internally and a narrow passage in the northeast. This formula dates from the 4th century AD. Generally the burials are mixed (ie buried here Christians and Gentiles), are individual, and sometimes they are multiple (a popular phenomenon in the Christian world). Funeral gifts were few, mainly pottery and just three female burials simply brought earrings-rings and wire annulet.In short distance south of the cemetery, which stretches north and east the plain of Chrysi, it have been identified residential facilities, which probably refer to an occupation of the rural population of the region under a common management organization in the 4th and 5th century AD.A possible early Christian three aisled basilica with narthex or “triclinium” was revealed to 'Monastiraki' of Xifiani, two kilometers southwest of the cemetery. It is a quadrangular, apsidal building, which is divided into three main areas, parallel to each other. The so-called central area or central aisle is encrusted with clay tablets, one of which has an engraved cross. At the same time, it owned a building rectangular section with at least three places, masonry walls, floors from quadrangular clay plates and wooden roof. [1] Moutsopoulos N., The churches of the prefecture of Pella, Thessaloniki, Society for Macedonian Studies / Peninsula Institute for Balkan Studies, 1973, p. 85.[2] Ibid. p. 20.[3] Paisidou, M., “About the percent departed Committed”. Excavation of the cemetery of the 4th century AD, in Xifiani Almopia.  The archaeological work in Macedonia and Thrace 17, 2003, pp. 517-531. See the website http://www.yppo.gr/5/g5111.jsp?obj_id=1580). Due to rehabilitation works and frequent care of local people (as we learn from residents of Xifiani), the temple's maintenance level is high. It has been restored the stone roof and the yard (wooden balusters) with materials that blend harmoniously with the surrounding landscape, such as stone and wood.We should note here that the church has great symbolic importance for the local community of Xifiani especially for older people who saw the church, destroyed and recently restored. From the field research, we learned that the oldest temple and the yard often hosted many events and played an important role in everyday life of the community. Today, in the temple is performed Divine Liturgy. We can therefore say with confidence, that the church of St. Demetrius is an integral part of the local identity of Xifiani. Access to the hill made by asphalt road, while for those who prefer trekking, there is a path that leads to the village. It is not a declared monument.
Saint Dimitrios in Aetochori The Church of St. Demetrius is a few meters away from the square of the traditional settlement of Aetochori. The church belongs to the type of three-aisled basilica with a gallery, like most churches of the 19th century, in the region and with a closed ambulatory. The temple is dated (by an inscription) in 1842, while a second inscription informs us that the wall painting was made in 1866, from a family of folk artists coming from the village Krousovo, like the painting in the churches of Upper Almopia of that season (see Monastery of Archangel Michael). The church has two entrances. On the south side, there is a very low church door that protected the church from the raids on horseback Turks. The opening of small doors was a common practice to build churches of Almopia during the Turkish occupation (see Assumption Church of the the Virgin in Garefi, Ascension Church in Thodoraki etc). The pitched roof is covered with slate, while the bell tower is located outside of the church, adjoining the north side of the peristyle. Unlike the case of St. Demetrios in Xifiani, the spire here is contemporary to the church[1]. The zenana consists of wooden parapet and trellis and has a shape of the Greek letter P (Π). The roof is wooden with simple decor, the sides have aisles, and the iconostasis has carved wooden sanctuary doors of the Holy Door and the Crucified. The temple is also rich in large-scale murals. On the northern wall, there are some frescos, which are divided into two zones: the upper zone shows the cycle of passions and the under zone shows a series of saints[2]. The sanctuary apse, shows the mural of Platytera. Finally, on the roof we will find signs of slugs. [1] Moutsopoulos N., The churches of the prefecture of Pella, Thessaloniki, Society for Macedonian Studies / Peninsula Institute for Balkan Studies, 1973, p. 29.[2] Ibid.   The church's protection level is quite low. The signs of chronic deterioration are apparent in the covered courtyard of the church, in the roof of the courtyard space (somewhere substituted with sheet metal), the murals, the zenana and the famous four-storey bell tower that has now collapsed[1]. As regards the belfry, it is necessary to direct the intervention and restoration of it. The church as a whole, requiring immediate and extensive maintenance and mounting operations, which should be done in consultation with the Archaeological Pella. [1] Here you can see the bell tower before collapsinghttp://lyk-exapl.pel.sch.gr/PhotoGal/topos_mas/aetoxori/slides/DSC_0185.html.   It is not a declared monument
Church of the Ascension in Theodoraki According to tradition, the church was built in 1878 on the ruins of an older church that burned down twice[1]. It is a remarkable three aisled basilica of the 19th century with an open loft on the west and south side, and murals inside. As observed in other temples of the region, the main temple of the door is low in order to protect the church from raids on horseback Turks. The roof is pitched and the spire as in other cases, is along the west side of the church. Inside, in the middle aisle, the ceiling is vaulted and in the lateral side the aisles are flat. The wood-temple is particularly impressive and it has been painted by the painter Emmanuel Stamatiadis in 1878. The wooden parapet of the zenana of the church is very impressive. It was decorated by a monk from Mount Athos and it shows scenes from the Akathistos Hymn, centrally the Assumption[2].The frescoes of the church, depict images of Abbot Zosima and Mary of Egypt, dated in 1884. It must however be noted, that in another idol, is recorded as the year of 1878[3]. Finally, next to the old church, there is a new church since 1989 with the same priest since then. [1] Moutsopoulos N., The churches of the prefecture of Pella, Thessaloniki, Society for Macedonian Studies / Peninsula Institute for Balkan Studies, 1973, p. 21-22.[2] See Website Almopia Municipality[3] Ibid. As for the decoration and hagiographies, there is poor maintenance. In some images, it has been cleaned a small part, on the initiative of special investigator, as we learn from the priest. The church is in the village, so the access is easy. From what we learn from the priest and the president of the local cultural association, the church has an active role in local everyday life. The festival which is associated with the temple, is the Qurbani as throughout Almopia. This festival takes place on January 18. Due to the importance of the monument, it has been declared a landmark and artwork by special state protection (MD Ministry of Culture / ARC / B1 / F36 / 50245/1183 / 07.01.1987 - GG 271 / B / 02.06.1987). Subordinate to the Archaeological Pella. For each setting or intervention in the area of the monument and around it we must have the permission of the above institution, in accordance with the provisions of Law. 3028/2002 (GG 153 / 06.28.2002).
Chrysi Castle The Castle of Chrysi is identified with the Moglena city, seat of the homonymous Byzantine theme and of diocese, from the 11th century at least[1]. The earliest known bishop is Saint Hilarion, in 1134 approximately, who dies and is buried in Moglena around 1164. Also, according to the excursionist Delacoulonche, in the place of the fortress was the city Evropos. This version, was then adopted by the archaeologist D. Eugenidou (Excavations 1985-1987). However, until today has not yet found any evidence to confirm the existence of pre-Christian antiquities in the area of the fortress[2]. In contrast, N. Papadakis argued in 1913 that the city Evropos was built on the site of the ancient settlement of Aloros[3].The castle dates back to the 10th -12th century, but its defining and its construction was likely to be placed on the older times. The south and southeast side of the castle are better preserved, although the entire perimeter is detected.The settlement inside occupied an area of about 40 acres, but it seems that, externally extending to the east. Within the walls, there has been excavated a three aisled basilica with narthex. In the niche there are traces of frescoes and mosaic flooring, and a throne. Sculpture fragments that have been discovered, (though fragmentary), testify rich decoration. The above data, (and the large dimensions of the basilica), suggesting that it is the Episcopal Cathedral of the town. The Moglena was mentioned as bishopric since the 11th century in “sigillia” of Basil II, defining the dioceses of the Archdiocese of Ohrid. (Named signet (or sigillium, or singilio) was during the Byzantine Empire the most important imperial official documents relating mainly foreign policy issues that commonly used by the Byzantine diplomacy.)Outside the castle was located the cemetery church, which is built in the type of free cross. Inside the temple, there are traces of the painted decoration. Apart from the built cist tomb, in central antenna internally, outside the temple has been excavated a total of 53 graves, of which 13 are child-sized. To the east of Chrysi, at the place Theodoraki is located another fortification fortress from the early Christian years, with a series of stone spaces inside[4]. [1] Eugenidou, D., “Chrysi Castle and the Subject of Moglenon” in Amitos: Honorary Volume for Manolis Andronikos, Thessaloniki, 1987, pp. 325-344 · idem, '' Excavations in Byzantine, Central and West Macedonia, Servia and Moglena '' The archaeological work in Macedonia and Thrace 1, 1987, pp. 63-68; See the website http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/3/gh352.jsp?obj_id=19897[2] Chrysostomou, A., Ancient Almopia: from the prehistoric to the early Byzantine years, Thessaloniki, Pan-Macedonian Association-Annex Almopia, 1994, p. 50.[3] Ibid.[4] Chrysostomou, A., AD 48, B2 Time, p. 375 · idem, AD 56-59 (2001-2004), B2 Chronicles, 1993, pp. 359-360.  Access to the monument is smooth but the signage is poor. At a height of over 7 m. There are two ellipsoids, one circular and one square tower, and the recess of the gate. The masonry consists of stones and three rows of broken bricks in the vertical joints, while in the horizontal joint there is an irregular order. The use of briquettes is denser in the towers and sparser in mid-towers intervals. Around the walls there is dense vegetation that makes it difficult to access at the top of the wall while the base of a large piece of the wall is 'corrupted' (possibly by human intervention). The view from the castle is impressive – in the west we can see Kaimaktsalan and Xifiani with the hill of St. Dimitrios. In the South, we see the Chrysi village, in the east we see Exaplatanos and in north-east are the mountains of Jena- Pinovo. The location is a listed archaeological site (MD Ministry of Culture and Science / ARC / B1 / F36 / 68102/2652 / 04.12.1979 - GG 188 / B / 25.2.1980). Subordinate to the Antiquities Pella. For each setting or intervention in the area of the monument and around it, it must have the permission of the above institution, in accordance with the provisions of Law. 3028/2002 (Government Gazette 153 / 06.28.2002).